References for Plantar Digital Neuroma

References have been cited for the work behind the 9th Podiatric Sports Medicine Conference on 2nd December 2021. A further presentation will be provided at the NEC where a review of the material relevant to podiatry will be presented on Thursday 12th May 2022. 

A full list of references is available to support professionals. As I prepared for this 25-minute presentation I realised that there was no way on earth I could do justice to a subject that has become so personal to me. While writing a book for patients and laypeople there is so much that has happened and continues to be published. As always it comes down to the quality of research and that fundamental – what is the question we want to ask?

  • Why does a neuroma arise and why do some but not all treatments work?
  • Should we subject ourselves to surgery and do we know the risks?

The second point I would emphasise to any clinician keen on evidence of a reliable source, make sure that the design is robust.

Papers that have blind controls, prospective designs, and random subject selection, are far more noteworthy than those that exist as single studies with narrow follow up periods. Happy reading and do follow my series as it unfolds. I have produced a ‘neuroma series’ from this talk to expand on some of the features that time failed to allow. 


      1. Albano, Domenico. Plantar forefoot pain: ultrasound findings before and after treatment with custom made orthoses. La Raiologia Medica. 2021;126:963-970
      2. Akermark, Christian  A prospective randomized controlled trial of plantar versus dorsal incisions. Am. Orth. Foot & Ankle Soc. 2013;34(9):1198-1204
      3. Arauz, Juan. Interdigital commissural approach for Morton’s neuroma. Am. Orth. Foot & Ankle Soc. 2020;41(10):1226-1233
      4. Aydinlar, E.I., Uzun, M., Beksac, B., Ozden, V.E., Karaarslan, E. and Oge, A.E. (2014), Simple electrodiagnostic method for morton neuroma. Muscle Nerve, 49: 193-197.
      5. Bencardino, Jenny  Morton’s Neuroma: Is it always symptomatic? Am.J.Rad. 2000; 175, September:649-653
      6. Bennett, GL, Graham CE, Mauldin DM. Morton’s interdigital neuroma: a comprehensive treatment protocol. Foot and Ankle International. 1995; 16:760-3
      7. Bignotti, B, Signori, A, Sormani, MP, Molfetta,L, Martinoli, C, Tagliafico, A. Ultrasound versus magnetic resonance imaging for Morton’s neuroma. Eur.Rad. 2015;25:2254-2262
      8. Burt, J, Abel, G, Elmore,N, Campbell,J, Roland,M, Benson,J, Silverman’s. Assessing communication quality of consultations in primary care: initial reliability of the global consultation rating scale, based on the Calgary-Cambridge guide to the medical interview. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e004339.doi.10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004339
      9. Campbell, C, Diamond,E, Schmidt,WK,Kelly,M,Allen,R, Houghton,W, Brady,K, Campbell,JN. A randomized, double blind, placebo- controlled trial of injected capsaicin for pain in Morton’s neuroma. Int. Assoc. for the Study of Pain. 2016;157(6):1297-1304
      10. Chhabra,A, Ahlawat, S, Belzberg,A, Andreseik, G. Peripheral nerve injury grading simplified on MR neurography: As referenced to Sedan and Sunderland classifications. Indian J. Rad. and Imaging. 2014,24(3):217-224
      11. Di Caprio, F, Meringalo,R, Eddine, MS, Ponziani, L. Morton’s interdigital neuroma of the foot. A literature review. Foot & Ankle Surgery. 2018;2:92-98
      12. Cazzato, R.L., Garnon, J., Ramamurthy, N. et al. Percutaneous MR-Guided Cryoablation of Morton’s Neuroma: Rationale and Technical Details After the First 20 Patients. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 39, 1491–1498 (2016).
      13. Claassen L, Bock K, Ettinger M, Waizy H, Stukenborg-Colsman C, Plaass C. Role of MRI in Detection of Morton’s Neuroma. Foot & Ankle International. 2014;35(10):1002-1005. doi:10.1177/1071100714540888
      14. Connors, JC, Book, AM, Rao, N, Kingsley, JD. Radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of painful neuroma. J.Foot & Ankle Surg. 2020;59:457-461
      15. Dando, C. The clinical diagnosis of symptomatic forefoot neuroma in the general population: a Delphi consensus study. J.Foot Ankle Res. 2017;10:59 doi 10.1186/s13047-017-0241-2
      16. Perez-Dominguez, B, Casana-Granell,J. The effects of a combined physical therapy approach on Morton’s neuroma. An N-of-1 case report. The Foot. 2020;
      17. DeHeer, P, Bains, RS, Grebenyuk, F, Patel’s, Nguyen,T. Effects of 4% ethanol sclerosing injection on Morton’s neuroma. J.Am.Pod.Med.Assoc. 2020;110(5):Sept-Oct.
      18. Govsa, F, Bilge,O, Ozer, MA. Anatomical study of the communicating branches between the medial and lateral plantar nerves. Surg. Radiology.Anat. 2005;27:377-381
      19. Greenfield J, Rea, J, Ilfield FW. Morton’s Interdigital neuroma: indications for treatment by local injections versus surgery. Clin Orthop Rel Res. Pp142-144, 1984
      20. Gurevitch, J, Koricheva,J, Nakagawa,S, Stewart,G.  Meta-analysis and the science of research synthesis. Review. 2018; March (55):175-182
      21. Gurdezi S, White T, Ramesh P. Alcohol Injection for Morton’s Neuroma: A Five-Year Follow-Up. Foot & Ankle International. 2013;34(8):1064-1067. doi:10.1177/1071100713489555
      22. Habashy, A, Sumarriva,G, Treating,RJ. Neurectomy outcomes in patients with Morton’s neuroma: comparison of plantar vs dorsal approaches. Oschner Journal. 2016;16(2):471-474
      23. Hewitt, S, Kilmartin,TE, O’Kane,C. A retrospective audit on the role of sonographical interpretation and localisation of intermetatarsal neuroma in the surgical management of Morton’s neuroma. Br.J of Podiatry. 2007;10(3):99-103
      24. Jefferson D, Neary D, Eames RA. Renaut body distribution at sites of human peripheral nerve entrapment. J Neurol Sci. 1981 Jan;49(1):19-29. doi: 10.1016/0022-510x(81)90184-2. PMID: 7205316.
      25. Kang, L 2018. Ultrasound-guided hyaluronic acid injection for the management of Morton’s neuroma
      26. Topp,KS, Boyd, BS. Structure and biomechanics of peripheral nerves: Nerve responses to physical stresses and implications for physical therapist practice. Physical Therapy, 2006,86(1):92-109
      27. Koricheva, Julia, et al., editors. Handbook of Meta-Analysis in Ecology and Evolution. Princeton University Press, 2013,
      28. Kubota, M, Ohno,R, Ishijima,M, Hanyo,R, Sakai, K, Sugawara,Y,Ochni,H, Mukasa,H,Kaneko,K. Minimally invasive endoscopic decompression of the intermetatarsal nerve for Morton’s neuroma.J.Orthop. 2015;
      29. Kundert, H, Plazas,C, Stukenborg-Colsman,C, Waist,H. Excision of Morton’s neuroma using a longitudinal plantar approach. A Midterm follow-up study. Clin. Res. doi.10.1177/1938640015599032
      30. Klontaz, M, Koltsakis,E, Kakkos,GA, Karantanas, A.H. Ultrasound-guided treatment of Morton’s Neuroma. J.Ultrason. 2021;21:e134-e138.doi.10.15557/JoU.2021.0022.
      31. Latinovic,R Gulliford, MC, Hughes,RAC. Incidence of common neuropathies in primary care. J.Neurol.Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 2006;77:263-265
      32. Lee MJ, Kim S, Huh YM, Song HT, Lee SA, Lee JW, Suh JS.   Morton Neuroma: Evaluated with Ultrasonography and MR Imaging.   Korean J Radiol. 2007 Mar-Apr;8(2):148-155.
      33. Lu, V, Puffer, RC, Eversion, MC, Gilder,HE, Burks,SS, Spinner,RJ. Treating Morton’s neuroma by injection, neurolysis, or neurectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of pain and satisfaction outcomes. Acta. Neurochurgica. 2021;163:531-543.
      34. Mahadevan, D. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical tests for Morton’s neuroma compared with ultrasonography. J.Foot & Ankle Surgery. 54(2015):549-553
      35. Mahadevan, D, Salmasi, M, Whybra et al What Factors predict the need for further intervention following corticosteroid injection of Morton’s Neuroma? J Foot & Ankle Surgery. 2016; 22:9-11
      36. Mahadevan, D, Attwal,M, Bhatt,R, Bhatia,M. Corticosteroid injection for Morton’s neuroma with or without ultrasound guidance. A randomised controlled trial. The Bone & Joint Journal. 2016;98-B:498-503
      37. Mak, MS, Chowdhury, Johnson, R. Morton’s neuroma: a review of anatomy, pathomechanism, and imaging. Clin. Rad. 76(2021):235e15-235e23
      38. Makki, D, Haddas,BZ, Mahmood,Z, Shahid,MS, Pathak,S, Granham, I. Efficacy of corticosteroid injection versus size of plantar interdigital neuroma. Foot & Ankle Internet. 2012;33(9):722-726
      39. Mallina, R, Dadah, KA,Patel,K, Ramesh,P. Is histopathological analysis of interdigital Morton’s neuroma necessary. Clin. Res. doi:10.1177/1938640016685151.
      40. Matthews, G, Hurn, SE, Harding M.P, Henry, R.A, Ware, R.S. The effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for common plantar digital compressive neuropathy (Morton’s neuroma): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 2019; 12:12
      41. Masala, S., Cuzzolino, A., Morini, M. et al. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency for the Treatment of Morton’s Neuroma. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 41, 137–144 (2018).
      42. Masaragian, HJ, Perin, F, Reza,L, Ameriso,N, Mizdraji, Coria,H, Cicardella,S  2021. Minimally invasive neurectomy for Morton’s neuroma with interdigital approach. Long term results. The Foot. 2021;
      43. Morton, T 1876. A peculiar and painful affection of the fourth metatarso-phalangeal articulation. In symposium. Disorders of the forefoot. Clinical Orthopaedics and related research. 1979, Jul-Aug,142:pp4-10
      44. Naraghi, Reza. Description of total population hospital admission for Morton’s metatarsalgia in Australia. J.A.P.M.A. 2014;104(5):451-454
      45. Naraghi R, Bremner A, Slack-Smith L, Bryant A. Radiographic Analysis of Feet With and Without Morton’s Neuroma. Foot & Ankle International. 2017;38(3):310-317. doi:10.1177/1071100716674998
      46. NICE papers on radio-frequency ablation (linked)
      47. Niki, H, Aoki, H, Inokuchi,S et al.  Development and reliability of a standard rating system for outcome measurement of foot and ankle disorders I: development of standard rating system. J.Orthop.Sci. 2005;10:457-465.
      48. Pabinger, Christof. Improved injection technique of ethanol for Morton’s neuroma. Foot & Ankle Internat. 2020;41(5):590-595
      49. Park, YH, Lee,JW, Choi,GW, Kim,HJ. Risk factors and the associated cutoff values for failure of corticosteroid injection in treatment of Morton’s Neuroma. Int. Orthop. 2018;42:323-329.
      50. Pastides, P, Ell-Sallakh, Charalambides, C Morton’s neuroma: A clinical versus radiological diagnosis. Foot and Ankle Surgery 2012; 18:22-24
      51. Poppler, L, Parikh,RP, Bichanich,MJ, et al. Surgical interventions for the treatment of painful neuroma: a comparative meta-analysis. Pain. 2018;159:214-223.
      52. Raouf, Tammer. Value of preoperative imaging and histopathology in Morton’s neuroma. Foot & Ankle Internat. 2019;40(9):1032-1036
      53. Samaila, EM, Ambrosini,C, Negri,S, et al. Can percutaneous alcholization of Morton’s neuroma with phenol by electrostimulation guidance be an alternative to surgical excision? Foot & Ankle Surg. 2020;26:314-319.
      54. Santiago, FR, Munoz, PT, Martinez, AM, Olletta, NP. Role of imaging methods in diagnosis and treatment of Morton’s neuroma. World J. Radiol. 2018;10(9):91-99.
      55. Satkeviciute,I, Goodwin,G, Bove,GM, Dilley, A.Time course of ongoing activity during neuritis and following axonal transport disruption. J Neurophysiol 119: 1993–2000, 2018. 2018; doi:10.1152/jn.00882.2017.
      56. Saygi B, Yildirim Y, Saygi EK, Kara H, Esemenli T. Morton Neuroma: Comparative Results of Two Conservative Methods. Foot & Ankle International. 2005;26(7):556-559. doi:10.1177/107110070502600711
      57. Sault, JD, Morris, MV, Yayaseelan, DJ, Emerson-Kavchak, AJ. Manual therapy in the management of a patient with a symptomatic Morton’s neuroma: a case report. Manual Therapy. 2016;(16):307-310.
      58. Schiffer,G, Chan,O, Jalan,R, Padhiar,N. Abstract: Retrospective review of injection therapy in Morton’s neuroma. Br.J Sports Med. 2013;10.1136/bjsports-2013-092558.36.
      59. Shibata,T, Yoshimura,I, Kanazawa,K et al. Neurectomy for bilateral Morton’s Neuroma. A case report of a male patient. J. Am. Pod. Med.Assoc. 2016;106(3):229-234.
      60. Thomson,L, Aujla, RS, Bhatia,M. Non-surgical treatments for Morton’s neuroma: A systematic review. Foot & Ankle Surgery 26(2020):736-743
      61. Tollafield DR, Williams HA. The Use of Two Injectable Corticosteroid Preparations used in the Management of Foot Problems – a Clinical Audit Report. J British Pod. Med. 1996 51(12):171-174 Ref.Pod Pr. 2018 (7)The use of two injectable corticosteroid
      62. Valisena, S, Petri, GJ, Ferrero, A. Treatment of Morton’s Neuroma: A systematic review. Foot and Ankle Surgery 24(2018):271-281
      63. Xu, Z. The accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic imaging for the diagnosis of Morton’s neuroma: a systematic review. Clin. Radiol. 2015;70:351-358


Related articles to Morton’s (plantar digital) neuroma

  1. Is back history valuable or just padding. [26th November 2021]
  2. Morton’s Neuroma. Old Problem, New Analysis. [6th Dec. 2021]
  3.  The Unsung and discredited management of Morton’s neuroma. Pathways and approaches. [9th Dec. 2021]
  4. Injection, neurolysis and sclerosis. [14th Dec. 2021]
  5. Thermal or surgical choices for Morton’s Neuroma. [16th Dec. 2021]
  6.  Incisional surgery for Morton’s neuroma [18th December 2021]

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